Some form of gum and bone disease is present in most adult mouths.
Periodontal disease is unrecognized because the condition is generally painless and slow in progression. Symptoms include red, inflamed gums, which bleed easily with brushing and flossing, bad breath and teeth becoming loose as condition worsens.
The supporting structures of the teeth including the gums and bone are termed Periodontium.
Gum and bone breakdown begins at the gum line with gingivitis and progresses to the more severe periodontitis. When oral hygiene is neglected and poor overall health is encountered, gum disease begins.
Gingivitis is a mild inflammation of the gum tissue when food deposits, dental plaque or the more calcified calculus are allowed to remain on the teeth.
Periodontitis is when food deposits, plaque and calculus continue to remain on the teeth, over time the bone begins to degenerate. This condition is termed Periodontitis.
As bone surrounding the root degenerates, teeth loosen, drift, migrate eventually leading to the loss of tooth. Proper treatment can still save most teeth.